Balochistan Journal of Linguistics <p>Balochistan Journal of Linguistics (BJL) is an open access and double-blind peer reviewed <strong>HEC Recognized Y Category</strong> National Journal published by Faculty of Languages and Literature, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Balochistan. The main objective of BJL is to provide a platform for national scholars, academicians, and researchers to share the contemporary thoughts in the fields of theoretical and applied linguistics. BJL aims to promote studies more specifically in the fields of Phonology, Syntax, Discourse Analysis, Genre Analysis, Corpus Linguistics, English for Specific Purposes, language and gender, sociolinguistics, Pragmatics, Semantics, English Language Teaching, and use of literature for teaching of English Language.</p> <p>The journal is published in both print and online.</p> <p><a href=";id=1021549#journal_result" target="_blank" rel="noopener">HEC Recognized Category "Y" Journal</a></p> <p>ISSN: 2312-5454 (Print) </p> Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences (LUAWMS), Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan en-US Balochistan Journal of Linguistics 2312-5454 Plural Marking in Pothowari: A Descriptive Account <p>The purpose of this paper is to document the features of plural marking in Pothowari. Pahari, Pothowari, and Mirpuri that are three significant yet mutually intelligible dialects of the Pahari Pothowari language. Pothowari is spoken in Pakistan’s northern central region, particularly in the districts of Jhelum and Rawalpindi. Pothowari literature is scarce in recorded form; it has been perpetuated orally through traditional tales, anecdotes, and indigenous poetry. The oral data for the current study was gathered from residents of the Jhelum region and its vicinity. The transcribed data is used to describe plural forms. This article is a modest contribution to the documentation of the regional variety spoken in Pakistan’s Punjab province.</p> Muhammad Omer Muhammad Javed Iqbal Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Omer 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 A Corpus Analysis of Modality in Covid-19 Based Editorials of Pakistani English Newspapers <p align="justify">"Modality" is one of the "golden oldies" among the fundamental concepts in language semantics. It is a well-known grammatical idea that is put into practice. To begin, the research examines the various sorts of modalities employed by writers of editorials based on COVID-19 in Pakistani English newspapers. The second part of the study investigates the editors' modality functions. Finally, the impact of the COVID-19 issue on the modality/language employed by editorial writers in Pakistani English newspapers is investigated. To continue, the information was gathered from two Pakistani newspapers, "The Express Tribune" and "Daily Times." It contains 87 COVID-19-based editorials from January to May 2020 (37 from "The Express Tribune" and 50 from "Daily Times"). The AntConc 3.4.4 version was used for analysis, and the functional approach was used to analyze modality (Halliday, 2004). The findings found that the editors of the "Daily Times" utilized a high degree of modals (must, should) to strictly instruct the public about COVID-19 precautions/safety measures. The COVID-19 issue is discovered to vary in terms of its utilization in the language, which is the key concern of the current study. In comparison, both the "Daily News" and "The Tribune Express" newspapers successfully maintained the balance by employing median models (will, would). As a result, the editors of "The Tribune Express" newspaper played a constructive role in disseminating information to readers by employing polite/low-degree modal verbs (could, may, might).</p> Faryal Waseem Khan Muhammad Saqib Zafar Hassan Bukhtiar Copyright (c) 2021 Faryal Waseem Khan, Muhammad Saqib Zafar, Hassan Bukhtiar 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 The Writing of History: Construction and Deconstruction of Myths of the Sindhis in Sindh, Pakistan <p>Sindh was occupied by the British colonizers in 1843, and they ruled over it till 1947, year in which India and Pakistan were partitioned, and Sindh was made a province of Pakistan. Myths of the Sindhis had been created by the British to justify their rule over Sindh. This study describes these constructions and analyzes how Sindhis have resisted and deconstructed these colonial myths and constructed their own discourse of national consciousness. This deconstruction focusses on the creation of a collective consciousness of the struggles of local Sindhi heroes who resisted the colonizers. Primary and secondary data from interviews and historical sources are analyzed to demonstrate the deconstruction by using Eqbal Ahmad’s (2000) concept of power triangle, and Reisigl and Wodak’s Discourse Historical Model (2008). Findings showed that the British colonizers used negative terms, such as ‘barbarism’, ‘the Sick man of India’, ‘martial-less race’, ‘hemp drinker’ and other negative slurs to refer to Sindh and Sindhis, and how these misperceptions continue to influence the power elite and mass media in Sindh and Pakistan. Building upon indigenous historical sources and narratives, we counter such hermeneutic interpretations of Sindhis and argue how these misinterpretations are far from reality, and how these seek to preserve colonial/political and other interests.</p> Ameer Ali Maya Khemlani David Copyright (c) 2021 Ameer Ali, Maya Khemlani David 2022-03-03 2022-03-03 9 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Boris Johnson’s Speech on Corona Pandemic: An Application of Three-Dimensional Model of Norman Fairclough <p>This study aims to analyzing the use of impression markers, main theme, and description of the social and cultural implication of the speech delivered by Prime Minister Boris Johnson. The research data comprised of the speech which Mr. Boris Johnson delivered on April 27, 2020, after he recovered from Corona virus attack. In this speech, he assured the people of England that the government is standing by them in this hour of difficulty. He appreciated the efforts made by NHS against the Pandemic. He also appreciated the patience of the people of England for following the SOP’s given by government. He informed the people that England is going to enter into the second phase of COVID19 and it could only be defeated if they (people) keep on following the instructions given by the government and NHS. He used different impression markers in his speech to make coherence, to emphasize his key points, and to grab the attention of the audience. The audience' comments below the YouTube video showed that he successfully convinced people for being calm and hopeful.</p> Zeeshan Haider Dr. Munir Gujjar Copyright (c) 2021 Zeeshan Haider, Dr. Munir Gujjar 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 Trends of Avoiding Pronunciation and Adapting Enunciation <p>The main purpose of the study is to find out the trend of avoiding pronunciation and adapting enunciation among students. A sample of 50 students are taken on the convenient basis from available, on the particular days of visit, from the three different colleges. The data is collected through the questionnaire. The questions of the questionnaire are about the issues why students adapt enunciation in their speaking instead of proper and correct pronunciation and how these issues can be solved. The data is analyzed and interpret based on percentages of responses. The major findings of the study show that students do not learn basics about second language (English) during school time because teacher are not trained well. Overall, the student’s basic concepts are not clear, and they do not know the right pronunciation, so they use enunciation in their speaking to cover their problem. So, it is recommended that teacher should emphasized on speaking strategies, and this will only be possible through qualified and trained teachers.</p> Rakhshanda Fawad Noreen Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 Rakhshanda Fawad, Noreen Akhtar 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 Dehumanization of Trans-Queers on Media: A Visual Analysis <p>The present article aims to analyze the visuals of transgenders by Pakistani media. The most popular movie, BOL was selected for visual analysis. All the events were discussed briefly that how trans-genders were dehumanized in Pakistan by the media. The media always portrays the existing culture of the society. Kress and Leeuwen’s modal were used to analyze the visuals because it is a strong tool to analyze the images. Gaze vector and salience have been used to study the visuals of trans-genders. Moreover, the present study reveals that trans-genders were badly dehumanized, and they are not able to establish themselves financially because of society. People abuse them, use them, and never allowed them to be respectful members of society. The researcher also suggests some techniques for the positive portrayal of trans-genders by media based on Kress and Leeuwen’s (2006) model. The media should stop presenting them negatively and the trans-genders must be able to get their basic rights of living as a supreme court of Pakistan also allow them. The media should teach people, to show some respect and let them live and enjoy their lives.</p> Asma Iqbal Farah Iqbal Mohammad Naveed Arshad Copyright (c) 2021 Asma Iqbal, Farah Iqbal, Mohammad Naveed Arshad 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 From Gender to Adjectival English Constructions: A Stylistic Lexical Analysis of The House of Broken Angels <p>The study reported in this paper investigates how potentially gender has operated in adjectival English constructions side by side with its cultural bond and decodes linguistic features of lexical categories sampled from Urrea’s ‘The House of Broken Angel’. Two aims of the study are (1) to construe gender operating in adjectival language of text; (2) to interpret cultural association of adjectives with gender. Purposive sampling of thirty lexical items on adjectival language alluding to gender moves was designed and axial coding was affixed to analyse significant features in data. Leech &amp; Short (2007) model has been opted and lexical features have particularly been interpreted on the basis of their contextual occurrence carefully engraved by the author in text. A motif throughout the study has been to discover gender moves in adjectival language used in text. Findings evinced the choice and function of adjectives coalesced in text and this bonding also projected a light on life, culture, gender roles, social settings, and love explicated in lexical items. Qualitative paradigm has been laid down to explore gender moves in adjectives illustrating the naturalized male &amp; female identities. The usefulness of study is demonstrated by initiating a journey to interpret linguistic characteristics of literary text and evidence contribute adequately to pedagogical implications.</p> Marghoob Ahmad Riaz Hussain Mamuna Ghani Copyright (c) 2021 Marghoob Ahmad, Riaz Hussain, Mamuna Ghani 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 Use of Appropriateness in Sidhwa’s ‘Water’, and ‘Their Language of Love’: Measurement on A Continuum <p>This paper aimed at investigating the approximation of the usage of ‘Appropriateness’ between two novels of Bapsi Sidhwa naming Water (2006) and a collection of short stories, Their Language of Love (2013). The qualitative approach was adopted, and the content of the original text was analyzed through Key Words in Context (KWIC). The elements of appropriateness (Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., &amp; Tiffin, H., 2002) were applied to elicit data from the text. The words and verbal tokens were the outcomes, which were further categorized into the predominant themes and concepts. The frequency-based collected data were analyzed. The classified data of “Their Language of Love” was compared with the previous study on, “Water” about Appropriateness. This analysis supplied enough evidence to support the hypothesis that Sidhwa has reduced the use of the technique of Appropriateness in her work. On the continuum, the techniques of Appropriateness are reduced in their appearance in the later work of Sidhwa. The data show that appropriateness has been decreased in its approximation on the continuum.</p> Syed Alamdar Nabi Lubna Yasir Arshad Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 Syed Alamdar Nabi, Lubna Yasir, Arshad Saleem 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9 Linguistic Transformation and Covid-19: A Corpus-Based Analysis of Intensifiers <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily affected all aspects of human life. Leaving out the social, psychological, and economic effects; the coronavirus has introduced a number of linguistic changes. The present study analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on Language in terms of the use of intensifiers and the presentation of the Coronavirus, especially by the media. The best way to analyze a language is with the help of its expressive aspect, that is, the use of intensifiers, as noted by Tagliamonte &amp; Roberts (2005). This study followed a mixed-method approach. The researchers took two different sets of four-month data, containing 134000 tokens in each from 16 international English newspapers from four different countries and named as pre-COVID corpus and COVID-19 corpus with the boundary line of 30th December 2019. Ten negative and ten positive intensifiers were classified and then analyzed with the help of Antconc (Version 3.5.8). The findings of this study showed that after the COVID-19 outbreak the negative intensifiers have been more frequently used as compared to the past. The frequent use of the negative intensifier “deadly” and similar adjectives with the COVID-19 delineates the current scenario of frustration, fear, and depression. Moreover, the COVID-19 impact on the use of language may affect the ideologies and bent of mind of the people and leads them towards stress, depression, frustration, and anxiety, which can also cause mental issues and negative feelings.</p> Hassan Bukhtiar Muhammad Saqib Zafar Faryal Waseem Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Hassan Bukhtiar, Muhammad Saqib Zafar, Faryal Waseem Khan 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 9